Reinforcement Learning (RL) is one of the most exciting research areas of Data Science. It has been at the center of many mathematicians’ work for a long time.
And today, with the improvement of Deep Learning and the availability of computational resources, RL has arisen a greater interest: as large amounts of data do not represent barriers anymore, new modeling approaches have emerged.
In this context, the combination of the Reinforcement Learning approach and Deep Learning models, generally referred to as Deep RL, has proven to be powerful.
It has been the basis of recent impressive advances in artificial intelligence…
Inequality is one of the greatest social and economic concerns of our time. It has dramatically increased over the last decades and has become deeply entrenched in our societies.
Today, the figures are alarming: according to the OECD, the average income of the richest 10% of the population is about 9x that of the poorest 10% across the OECD. This is 7x higher than 25 years ago! The situation is even more worrying in the United State where the richest 1 percent concentrate more on national wealth and income than in any country.
Faced with this situation, what actions should…
As our knowledge in Biology, or the Science of Life, increased tremendously over time, it has become a great source of inspiration for many engineers seeking to address challenging problems and develop creative innovations.
Take the example of the Japanese high-speed train, Shinkansen, one of the fastest trains of the world, with speeds in the excess of 300km/h. During its conception, engineers encountered serious difficulties because of the massive amount of noise created by the displacement of air ahead of the trains, which can even cause structural damage to several tunnels.
To address this issue, they turned to an unlikely…
Happiness is something we all aspire to, yet its key factors are still unclear.
Some would argue that wealth is the most important condition as it determines one’s living conditions. Nevertheless, some would rightly point out that rich people aren’t systematically happy. On the contrary, one’s social relationships (family, friends, etc.) contribute just as much to his happiness. Finally, some would argue that the policies implemented by governments are what really determine one’s happiness, as they determine indirectly our living conditions and social interactions.
These are all general and intuitive ideas about happiness, that we can easily apprehend using our…
In these exceptional times, the lockdown left many of us with a lot of time to think. Think about the past and the future. Think about our way of life and our achievements. But most importantly, think about what has been and would be our contribution to the world. And, as I was seeking for inspiration and energy, I decided to grasp the question of happiness and get a deeper understanding of the complex nature of its dynamics.
What makes people truly happy?
We all have our own ideas about happiness and its key determinants. Some would choose wealth as…
Artificial Intelligence has known a great success in recent years as it provided us with powerful algorithms that use a large database to make accurate predictions or classifications. They are increasingly used for different purposes, including high-stake ones.
And yet, they are not infallible.
In fact, most of these algorithms are trained on data that can be deliberately manipulated by an adversary looking to misguide it into making errors.
Let’s take a simple example: email spam detection. At first, standard classifiers such as naïve Bayes were extremely efficient in terms of accuracy. However, spammers learned quickly how to fool them…
In recent years, machine learning algorithms have known a great success. Thanks to the availability of important amount of data and the increase of computation speed, they have outperformed usual statistical methods.
Nevertheless, as I was learning more about how they work and how to apply them, I came to a surprising fact: most of these algorithms were focusing on making the most accurate predictions or classifications rather than proving cause-and-effect relationships.
And yet, these kind of relationships can be crucial in decision making, especially in the sectors of health, social or behavior sciences.
Consider the following questions:
Data Scientist @Dataiku | Graduate from l’Ecole des Ponts in Applied Mathematics & Computer Science | Excited about Data Science & Decision Making